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Macro-éléments

[:fr]Micro & Macro-éléments[:]

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On distingue ainsi selon leur concentration :

  • les macro-éléments (entre 30 à 1300 g pour un corps humain de 70 Kg)
  • les micro-éléments (entre 1 à 10 g pour un corps humain de 70 Kg)
  • les oligo-éléments (<1 mg/Kg)

Ils jouent un rôle de catalyseur ou de régulateur, par exemple d’activateurs enzymatiques.

Micro-éléments

  • Brome (Br)
  • Iode (I)
  • Fer (Fe)
  • Fluor (F)
  • Zinc (Zn)

Oligo et Macro-éléments

Ensemble des éléments nécessaires au corps :

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg
* Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
** Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Les 4 éléments organiques Autres macro-éléments Oligo-éléments Éléments omniprésents
mais sans fonction vitale

H (Hydrogène), He (Hélium), Li (Lithium), Be (Béryllium), B (Bore), C (Carbone), N (Azote), O (Oxygène), F (Fluor), Ne (Néon), Na (Sodium), Mg (Magnésium), Al (Aluminium), Si (Silicium), P (Phosphore), S (Soufre), Cl (Chlore), Ar (Argon), K (Potassium), Ca (Cadmium), Sc (Scandium), Ti (Titane), V (Vanadium), Cr (Chrome), Mn (Manganèse), Fe (Fer), Co (Cobalt), Ni (Nickel), Cu (Cuivre), Zn (Zinc), Ga (Gadolium), Ge (Germanium), As (Arsenic), Se (Sélénium), Br (Brome), Kr (Krypton), Rb (Rubidium), Sr (Strontium), Y (Yttrium), Zr (Zirconium), Nb (Niobium), Mo (Molybdène), Tc (Technétium), Ru (Ruthénium), Rh (Rhodium), Pd (Palladium), Ag (Argon), Cd (Cadmium), In (Indium), Sn (Etain), Sb (Antimoine), Te (Tellure), I (Iode), Xe (Xénon), Cs (Césium), Ba (Baryum), La (Lanthane), Hf (Hafnium), Ta (Tantale), W (Tungstène), Re (Rhénium), Os (Osmium), Ir (Iridium), Pt (Platine), Au (Or), Hg (Mercure), Tl (Thallium), Pb (Plomb), Bi (Bismuth), Po (Polonium), At (Astate), Rn (Radon), Fr (Francium), Ra (Radium), Ac (Actimium), Rf (Rutherfordium), Db (Dubnium), Sg (Seaborgium), Bh (Bohrium), Hs (Hassium), Mt (Meitnerium), Ds (Darmstadtium), Rg (Roentgenium), Ce (Cérium), Pr (Praséodyme), Nd (Néodyme), Pm (Prométhium), Sm (Samarium), Eu (Europium), Gd (Gadolinium), Tb (Terbium), Dy (Dysprosium), Ho (Holmium), Er (Erbium), Tm (Thulium), Yb (Ytterbium), Lu (Lutécium), Th (Thorium), Pa (Protactinium), U (Uranium), Np (Neptunium), Pu (Plutonium), Am (Américium), Cm (Curium), Bk (Berkélium), Cf (Californium), Es (Einsteinium), Fm (Fermium), Md (Mendélévium), No (Nobélium), Lr (Lawrencium)

Liste des Macro-éléments

Pour un homme adulte de 70 kg, en grammes :
Rang Élément chimique % mol Masse Besoins journaliers
1 Oxygène (O) 61,43 2 700 43 000
2 Carbone (C) 22,86 1 300 16 000 300
3 Hydrogène (H) 10 6 900 7 000
4 Azote (7N) 2,57 129 1 800 5
5 Calcium (Ca) 1,43 25 1 000 1
6 Phosphore (P) 1,11 25 780 0,8
7 Potassium (K) 0,2 3,6 140 2
8 Soufre (16S) 0,2 4,4 140
9 Sodium (11Na) 0,16 4,3 100 1
10 Chlore (17Cl) 0,14 2,7 95
11 Magnésium (Mg) 0,03 0,78 19 0,4
Total Macro-éléments 100 4 884,78 70 074

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